Chordoma: a systematic review of the epidemiology and clinical prognostic factors predicting progression-free and overall survival

Chordoma: a systematic review of the epidemiology and clinical prognostic factors predicting progression-free and overall survival

S. H. Bakker, W. C. H. Jacobs, W. Pondaag, H. Gelderblom, R. A. Nout, P. D. S. Dijkstra, W. C. Peul, C. L. A. Vleggeert-Lankamp

September 2018, pp 1 - 16
DOI
10.1007/s00586-018-5764-0
First Online: 15 September 2018
Abstract

Background and aims

The aim of this systematic review is to describe the epidemiology of chordoma and to provide a clear overview of clinical prognostic factors predicting progression-free and overall survival.

Methods

Four databases of medical literature were searched. Separate searches were performed for each of the two objectives. Reference and citation tracking was performed. Papers were processed by two independent reviewers according to a protocol that included risk of bias analysis. Disagreement was resolved by discussion. Pooled analyses were planned if homogeneity of data would allow.

Results

Incidence—incidence rates ranged between 0.18 and 0.84 per million persons per year and varied between countries and presumably between races. On average patients were diagnosed in their late fifties and gender data indicate clear male predominance. Two of the largest studies (n = 400 and n = 544) reported different anatomical distributions: one reporting the skull base and sacrococcygeal area affected in 32% and 29% of cases, whereas the other reporting that they were affected in 26% and 45% of cases, respectively.

Prognostic factors

Statistically significant adverse prognostic factors predicting progression-free and overall survival include female sex, older age, bigger tumour size, increasing extent of tumour invasion, non-total resection, presence of metastasis, local recurrence, and dedifferentiated histological subtype.

Conclusions

Incidence rate and anatomical distribution vary between countries and presumably between races. Most chordomas arise in the skull base and sacrococcygeal spine, and the tumour shows clear male predominance. Multiple adverse prognostic factors predicting progression-free and overall survival were identified in subgroups of patients.

Graphical abstract

These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.[Figure not available: see fulltext.]