Netanja I. Harlianto, Zaneta N. Harlianto

September 2023, pp 1 - 7 Review Article Read Full Article 10.1007/s00586-023-07942-8

First Online: 14 September 2023


To systematically investigate all published literature on spinal gout regarding location demographics, patient characteristics, treatment, and outcomes.


We performed a systematic literature search of Medline and EMBASE from inception until April 15, 2023. Two investigators performed data extraction and quality assessment of location demographics and patient characteristics and outcomes of all article types describing spinal gout.


A total of 214 articles (204 case reports and 10 case series) were included, encompassing 315 subjects with spinal gout (81% male, mean age 58.1 years; range: 16–92). Most cases (36%) were between the age of 60–69 years. We observed an increase in publications and cases from 1950 to the present. Most patients were from institutions in Asia (n = 119, 37.8%) and North America (n = 96, 30.5%). Reported symptoms frequently included back pain (75%), radiating pain to extremities (27.3%), and weakness in the extremities (26.3%). The lumbar spine was most often affected. Pharmacological treatment was described for 108 (34.2%) patients. Surgery was performed for 146 (46.3%) of patients, of which 4.8% had postoperative complications. Three patients (2%) required secondary surgery for recurrence.


Published cases of spinal gout have increased over the last decades. Patient characteristics of spinal gout were similar to findings in systemic gout. Trends identified in patient characteristics and treatment outcomes may help guide patient management and improve our understanding of spinal gout.

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