Rafael Lorente, Gonzalo Mariscal, Alejandro Lorente

August 2023, pp 1 - 9 Review Article Read Full Article 10.1007/s00586-023-07889-w

First Online: 12 August 2023


The main objective of this study was to assess the overall incidence of genitourinary anomalies in patients with congenital scoliosis by providing the highest level of evidence. The secondary objective was to look for associations and trends influencing the incidence.


A meta-analysis using PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Collaboration Library database was carried out. We included studies focusing on patients with congenital scoliosis and genitourinary anomalies. The main outcome was the incidence of genitourinary anomalies in congenital scoliosis. We also collected the following data: patient gender, type of deformity (formation, segmentation, or mixed), deformity location, and associated anomalies. We included cohort studies. Data was extracted from published reports and combined using Review Manager 5.4. The quality of the included studies was assessed independently by two authors using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS) criteria.


A total of eight cohort studies were included from a pool of 2781 patients. The incidence of genitourinary anomalies associated with congenital scoliosis was 22.91% (95% CI 13.39–32.43%). The incidence of surgically treated genitourinary anomalies was 13.92% (95% CI 4.54–23.31%). There were no differences related to gender (male 49.3% versus female 50.7%; p > 0.05). There were no differences regarding the type of deformity. The incidences of associated intraspinal, cardiac, musculoskeletal and craniofacial anomalies were 33.30%, 17.60%, 27.77% and 19.83% respectively. The most frequent genitourinary anomalies were: unilateral kidney (111/388); renal ectopia (50/367); obstructive uropathy (30/201), horseshoe kidney (30/313) and undescended testicle (16/180).


The incidence of genitourinary anomalies associated with congenital scoliosis was 22.91%, and 13.92% were surgically treated. Unilateral kidney was the most common genitourinary abnormality. There were no differences between genders and deformity types. It is important to consider the association between genitourinary anomalies and intraspinal or musculoskeletal anomalies.

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