Frédéric Cornaz, Samuel Haupt, Mazda Farshad, Jonas Widmer

June 2022, pp 1 - 9 Ideas and Technical Innovations Read Full Article 10.1007/s00586-022-07286-9

First Online: 29 June 2022


While anteroposterior instability of spinal segments is regarded as an important biomechanical aspect in the clinical evaluation of lumbar pathologies, the reliability of the available diagnostic tools is limited and an intraoperative method to quantify stability is lacking. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an instrument to measure the anteroposterior stability of a spinal segments in real-time.


Torsi of five fresh-frozen human cadavers were used for this study. After pedicle screw insertion, a specifically modified reposition tool composed with load and linear sensors was used to measure the segmental anteroposterior motion caused by 100 N anterior and posterior force during 5 loading cycles on either side of the instrumentation by two different operators. The spinal segments were then resected from the torsi and anteroposterior loading with ± 100 N was repeated in an advanced biomechanical spine testing setup as a reference measurement. The Inter-correlation coefficient (ICC) was used for validation of the “intraoperative” device.


Inter-operator repeatability of the measurements showed an ICC of 0.93 (p < 0.0001) and the bilateral (left–right) comparison had an ICC of 0.73 (p < 0.0001). The ICC resulting from the comparison to the reference measurement was 0.82 (p < 0.0001) without offset correction, and 0.9 (p < 0.0001) with offset correction. The ICC converged at this value already after two of the five performed loading cycles.


An accurate and reliable measurement tool is developed and validated for real-time quantification of anteroposterior stability of spinal segments and serves as a basis for future intraoperative use.

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