Hao Zhang, Derong Xu, Chao Wang, Kai Zhu, Jianwei Guo, Chong Zhao, Jialuo Han, Houchen Liu, Xuexiao Ma, Chuanli Zhou

June 2022, pp 1 - 10 Original Article Read Full Article 10.1007/s00586-022-07280-1

First Online: 24 June 2022

Study design

Clinical retrospective cohort study.


To explore the application of the electromagnetic navigation system in Endo-TLIF.

Materials and methods

From May 2019 to March 2020, 76 patients with single-segment lumbar spondylolisthesis treated by electromagnetic navigation-assisted Endo-TLIF (NE group) and conventional Endo-TLIF (CE group) were enrolled in the study. Time of pedicle screw implantation, entire operation time, the number of intraoperative X-ray fluoroscopy exposures, total blood loss, incision length, ambulation time, accuracy of pedicle screws, complications, visual analog scale for back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, Japanese Orthopedic Association score and postoperative fusion rates were recorded, respectively.


There were no significant differences in preoperative demographics between the NE and CE groups (P > 0.05). The mean number of intraoperative X-ray fluoroscopy exposures, guidewires insertion, entire operation time, total blood loss and adjustment rate of screws in the NE group were significantly less compared with the CE group (P  0.05). There was no statistical difference in fusion rates between the two groups. In addition, one case of cage subsidence was observed after surgery in the CE group.


Electromagnetic navigation systems could be applied throughout the entire surgical course and ameliorate the shortcomings of the conventional Endo-TLIF technique to reduce radiation exposure, improve accuracy, avoid repetitive operations and shorten surgery time and the required learning curve of the procedure.

Level of evidence I

Diagnostic: individual cross-sectional studies with consistently applied reference standard and blinding.

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