Ahmed Habib, Nicolina Jovanovich, Nallammai Muthiah, Ali Alattar, Nima Alan, Nitin Agarwal, Alp Ozpinar, David Kojo Hamilton

May 2022, pp 1 - 9 Review Article Read Full Article 10.1007/s00586-022-07250-7

First Online: 19 May 2022


Spine surgery entails a wide spectrum of complicated pathologies. Over the years, numerous assistive tools have been introduced to the modern neurosurgeon’s armamentarium including neuronavigation and visualization technologies. In this review, we aimed to summarize the available data on 3D printing applications in spine surgery as well as an assessment of the future implications of 3D printing.


We performed a comprehensive review of the literature on 3D printing applications in spine surgery.


Over the past decade, 3D printing and additive manufacturing applications, which allow for increased precision and customizability, have gained significant traction, particularly spine surgery. 3D printing applications in spine surgery were initially limited to preoperative visualization, as 3D printing had been primarily used to produce preoperative models of patient-specific deformities or spinal tumors. More recently, 3D printing has been used intraoperatively in the form of 3D customizable implants and personalized screw guides.


Despite promising preliminary results, the applications of 3D printing are so recent that the available data regarding these new technologies in spine surgery remains scarce, especially data related to long-term outcomes.

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