Abdul Fettah Buyuk, John M. Dawson, Stefan Yakel, Eduardo C. Beauchamp, Amir A. Mehbod, Ensor E. Transfeldt, Pierre Roussouly

April 2022, pp 1 - 10 Original Article Read Full Article 10.1007/s00586-022-07214-x

First Online: 22 April 2022


To investigate the relationship between pelvic incidence (PI) and proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) in patients treated surgically for adult spinal deformity (ASD) with fusion from thoracolumbar junction to sacrum.


A consecutive series of ASD patients who underwent fusion from the thoracolumbar junction to the sacrum with a minimum of 2-year follow-up was studied. Patients were divided into low PI (≤ 50°) and high PI (> 50°) groups. We compared radiographic parameters and the rates of PJK, between the two groups. A sub-analysis was performed on patients with a postoperative PI minus lumbar lordosis mismatch between − 10° and 10° (i.e., ideally corrected).


Sixty-three patients were included: 19 low PI and 44 high PI. Median follow-up was 34 months (range 24–103). Overall PJK rate was 38%. PJK was observed in 16% of low PI and 48% of high PI patients (p = 0.02). The odds ratio for developing PJK with a high PI compared to a low PI was 4.9 (p = 0.03). There were 32 ideally corrected patients. Eleven of these were in the low PI group, and 21 patients were in the high PI group. The incidence of PJK was 25% for ideally corrected patients. PJK occurred in none of these patients in the low PI group and 38% of patients in the high PI group (p = 0.03).


When the upper-instrumented vertebra includes the thoracolumbar junction, patients with a PI > 50° are at a significantly higher risk of developing PJK compared to patients with a PI ≤ 50°.

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