Niek te Hennepe, Sayf S. A. Faraj, Martin H. Pouw, Marinus de Kleuver, Miranda L. van Hooff

April 2022, pp 1 - 8 Review Article Read Full Article 10.1007/s00586-022-07204-z

First Online: 19 April 2022

Study design

Systematic review.


Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a deformity of the trunk and chest and can cause a spectrum of pulmonary symptoms. However, no standardized measurement instrument exists. The aim of this systematic review is to identify and describe patient-reported and clinical measurement instruments used to evaluate pulmonary symptoms in patients with AIS.


Studies published after 01.01.2000 were included in a systematic search. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and clinical measurement instruments for pulmonary symptoms were extracted as well as their measurement properties (floor-ceiling effects, validity, reliability, responsivity and interpretability). The Risk of Bias (RoB) was evaluated.


Out of 3146 studies, 122 were eligible for inclusion. Seven clinical measurement instruments, measuring 50 measurement parameters, were identified. Five PROMs for pulmonary symptoms were identified. Studies assessing the quality of measurement properties in the AIS population were not identified. As such, the RoB could not be determined.


No available adequate patent centric instruments were identified that measure pulmonary functioning and symptoms. Although clinical measurement instruments are regularly used, their use in routine practice does not seem feasible. The measurement properties of some identified PROMs seem promising; however, they have not been validated in an AIS population. As pulmonary symptoms in patients with AIS are still poorly understood, the development of such a construct and potentially a subsequent PROM to routinely measure pulmonary functioning and patient experience is recommended.

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