Fanqi Hu, Chao Liu, Shiqi Cao, Xiangyu Wang, Weibo Liu, Teng Li, Xiaoqing Yang, Xuesong Zhang

January 2022, pp 1 - 8 Original Article Read Full Article 10.1007/s00586-021-07085-8

First Online: 18 January 2022


The Fremantle back awareness questionnaire (FreBAQ) was recently developed as simple and quick tool to assess back-specific body perception in Low back pain (LBP) patients. The aim of the present study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the Fremantle back awareness questionnaire (FreBAQ) into a Simplified Chinese version (FreBAQ-C), and evaluate the reliability and validity of the FreBAQ-C in patients with non-specific Chronic Low back pain (CLBP).


The FreBAQ was translated into Chinese according to established methods. Internal consistency was assessed according to Cronbach’s alpha. Test–retest reliability was estimated by Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Construct validity was evaluated by correlations between the FreBAQ-C and Visual analogue scale (VAS), Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (RDQ), Pain catastrophizing scale (PCS), Tampa scale for kinesiophobia (TSK) as well as Hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS).


A total of 105 participants (38 males and 67 females) were included in this study with the mean age of 54.1 ± 15.6 years, mean duration of LBP of 6.8 ± 4.6 years. The FreBAQ-C total scores were well distributed, with no floor or ceiling effects. Internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.833). ICC of test–retest reliability was good (0.897, 95% confidence interval: 0.852–0.929). The limits of agreement (LOA) ranged from − 5.8 to 6.3. The Standard error of measurement (SEM) and Minimum detectable change (MDC) were 2.16 and 5.99. Construct validity was confirmed by significant correlation of The FreBAQ-C and VAS during motion (r = 0.274, p = 0.005) and rest (r = 0.243, p = 0.012), RDQ (r = 0.377, p < 0.001), PCS (r = 0.439, p < 0.001), and TSK(r = 0.311, p = 0.001).


The FreBAQ-C was demonstrated to have acceptable reliability and validity for patients with non-specific CLBP in Chinese mainland. It will allow evaluating body preception of the back in the Chinese population with CLBP.

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