Harry M. Lightsey, Caleb M. Yeung, Dino Samartzis, Melvin C. Makhni

August 2021, Volume 30, Issue 8, pp 2102 - 2108 Review Article Read Full Article 10.1007/s00586-021-06921-1

First Online: 09 July 2021


Remote patient monitoring (RPM) has revolutionized the landscape of healthcare. From humble beginnings rooted in landline home telephone calls to present-day devices with near instantaneous wireless connectivity, the evolution of technology has ushered in an era of digital medicine and remote care. Presently, a vast array of healthcare data points can be automatically generated, analyzed, and forwarded to providers to supplement clinical decision-making. While RPM originated and was popularized within medicine, its role in orthopedics, and particularly within spine surgery, is evolving. We sought to provide an overview of RPM within orthopedics, with specific attention on spine care, analyzing its origins, present-day form, and prospects.


We reviewed the literature to date as it pertains to RPM within healthcare at large, orthopedics, and spine care.


We detail the development and clinical use of wearable technology and smart implants, examining the underlying technology and evaluating the spectrum of their present-day and potential applications.


Technological advancements are not only reshaping the paradigm of musculoskeletal care but are also redefining the physician–patient relationship as well as reimagining traditional perspectives on healthcare data collection and privacy.

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