Jang Hun Kim, Sang Hoon Yoon, Suhk Que Park, Seung-Pil Ban, Byung-Kyu Cho

August 2021, Volume 30, Issue 8, pp 2385 - 2400 Original Article Read Full Article 10.1007/s00586-021-06831-2

First Online: 23 April 2021


Because of the rarity of the disease, paraspinal arteriovenous shunt (PAVS) is not well recognized, and therapeutic options remain controversial. To introduce a rare disease of PAVS and demonstrate its etiology, clinical features, treatment options, and outcomes, we presented a case report and conducted a systematic review and individual participants data (IPD) meta-analysis.


Studies regarding on PAVS were integrated and IPD were obtained including patients’ demographics, disease etiology, clinical and radiologic features, clinical courses and outcomes. Clinical manifestation and treatment outcomes were reviewed, and comparison analysis (cervical versus thoracolumbar) were performed. Further, logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the poor prognostic factors (incomplete obliteration).


Fifty-two articles were selected, and 88 patients enrolled. General and location-specific characteristics of PAVSs were identified: ‘3/4 of the isolated and 1/4 of the associated etiology’, ‘bruit, thrill, or murmur (cervical) and weakness (thoracolumbar) as common symptoms’, ‘40% multiple feeders’, and ‘22% intradural venous involvement’. Endovascular treatment was usually preferred (75%). Of 88 enrolled patients, 18 patients showed incomplete obliteration (20.5%). In multivariate analysis, ‘etiologies of systematic genetic dysplasia (P = 0.031) and trauma (negatively, 0.038)’ were significantly associated with incomplete obliteration. The parameters of ‘multiple feeders (0.066)’ and ‘combined approach (negatively, 0.065)’ are verified only in univariate analysis.


General as well as location-specific characteristics of PAVS is successfully demonstrated. Approximately 20% of the incomplete obliteration is noted, and three potential poor prognostic factors are identified, namely, ‘etiology of systematic genetic dysplasia (positive) and trauma (negative)’, ‘combined approach (negative), and ‘multiple feeders’.

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