Weishi Liang, Bo Han, Junrui Jonathan Hai, Yong Hai, Long Chen, Nan Kang, Peng Yin

May 2021, Volume 30, Issue 5, pp 1173 - 1183 Review Article Read Full Article 10.1007/s00586-021-06739-x

First Online: 08 February 2021

3D-printed drill guide template, a promising tool to improve pedicle screw placement accuracy in spinal deformity surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis


This study aimed to compare the pedicle screw placement accuracy and surgical outcomes between 3D-printed (3DP) drill guide template technique and freehand technique in spinal deformity surgery.


A comprehensive systematic literature search of databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science) was conducted. The meta-analysis compared the pedicle screw placement accuracy and other important surgical outcomes between the two techniques.


A total of seven studies were included in the meta-analysis, comprising 87 patients with 1384 pedicle screws placed by 3DP drill guide templates and 88 patients with 1392 pedicle screws placed by freehand technique. The meta-analysis results revealed that the 3DP template technique was significantly more accurate than the freehand technique to place pedicle screws and had a higher rate of excellently placed screws (OR 2.22, P 


This study demonstrated that the 3DP drill guide template was a promising tool for assisting the pedicle screw placement in spinal deformity surgery and deserved further promotion.

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