Ajay Puri, Srinath M. Gupta, Ashish Gulia, Nitin Shetty, Siddhartha Laskar

October 2020, pp 1 - 6 Original Article Read Full Article 10.1007/s00586-020-06650-x

First Online: 26 October 2020


Giant cell tumors of sacrum in which surgery could endanger important neural components were treated with short term denosumab, angioembolisation and radiotherapy in different combinations to provide a non-operative function preserving treatment option.


Between April 2013 and April 2017, 13 sacral GCTs [proximal extent of disease—S1 (10), S2 (2) and S3 (1)] were treated. Age ranged from 20 to 50 years. One patient had loss of bladder control at presentation. Treatment protocol included short term denosumab, angioembolisation and radiotherapy in different combinations. Patients were evaluated every 10–12 weeks. If disease ceased to progress no further treatment was advised. In case of progress, patient was advised additional denosumab and/or angioembolisation and/or radiotherapy till disease stopped progressing.


10 patients have non-progressive disease and are asymptomatic, 2 have non-progressive disease with occasional pain, 1 patient died. Follow-up duration (since final non-progression of disease) ranged from 15 to 54 months (mean 31 months). Total number of angio embolisation sessions ranged from 0 to 12 (mean = 4), total number of denosumab doses ranged from 5 to 16 (mean = 9). Five patients did not receive any radiotherapy, 5 received 50.4 Gy and one patient each received 50.4 + 30 + 12 Gy, 50.4 + 30 Gy and 50.4 + 12 Gy. The patient with loss of bladder control at presentation recovered. There were no other long-term complications.


This study offers a non-surgical management option that provides good mid-term local control while preserving neurological function in these complex lesions.

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