Hiroki Ushirozako, Tomohiko Hasegawa, Yu Yamato, Go Yoshida, Tatsuya Yasuda, Tomohiro Banno, Hideyuki Arima, Shin Oe, Yuki Mihara, Tomohiro Yamada, Koichiro Ide, Yuh Watanabe, Keichi Nakai, Yukihiro Matsuyama

December 2020, Volume 29, Issue 12, pp 3018 - 3027 Original Article Read Full Article 10.1007/s00586-020-06616-z

First Online: 06 October 2020


L5 pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) is a demanding technique; thus, PSOs are usually performed at the L3/L4 level to correct the lack of lumbar lordosis. Mid- to long-term improvements in clinical outcomes after L5 PSO are unknown. We aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of L5 PSO for rigid kyphosis deformities.


We retrospectively reviewed the records of 57 patients with a rigid kyphosis deformity (mean age: 68 years) who underwent extensive corrective surgery incorporating PSO with a > 2-year follow-up. Radiographic parameters, postoperative complication rates, and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores were compared in the L5, L4, and L1-3 PSO groups preoperatively and at 1, 2, and 5 years postoperatively.


There were 12, 25, and 20 patients in the L5, L4, and L1-3 PSO groups, respectively. Significant between-group differences were found in preoperative L4–S1 lordosis (L5:L4:L1-3 PSO groups =  − 8.9°:8.9°:16.2°, P 


L5 PSO for L4-5/L5 kyphosis deformities resulted in adequate correction and ODI improvement, which were maintained up to 5 years postoperatively. The surgical invasiveness, complication rates, and long-term prognosis associated with L5 PSO were similar to those of PSOs performed at other levels.

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