Wen Zhang, Tao Li, Mengmeng Xu, Xiaoyang Liu, Guodong Wang, Bingxiang Wang, Jianmin Sun, Xingang Cui, Zhensong Jiang

September 2020, Volume 29, Issue 9, pp 2384 - 2391 Original Article Read Full Article 10.1007/s00586-020-06548-8

First Online: 28 July 2020


The aim is to propose a novel spinopelvic parameter C7 sacral tilt (C7ST), of which its sum with global tilt (GT) is equal to pelvic incidence (PI), from a geometrical point of view.


A cohort of 198 patients was recruited and the whole lateral spine and pelvic radiographs were performed. The following sagittal parameters were measured: sagittal vertical axis (SVA), C7 vertical tilt (C7VT), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt (PT), PI, GT and C7ST. The correlations between them were analyzed using the Pearson or Spearman correlation coefficient, and simple linear regressions were simultaneously conducted. P 


Geometric construction by complementary angles revealed that PI = C7ST + GT, GT = PT + C7VT, and C7ST = SS − C7VT. Both C7ST and GT were moderately correlated with PI (R = 0.52 and 0.596, respectively), strongly correlated with SS and PT, respectively (SS = 0.9 * C7ST + 1.15, R = 0.955; PT = 0.87 * GT + 3.86, R = 0.96). The correlation coefficients of the SVA and C7VT, SVA and SS − C7ST, and SVA and GT − PT were 0.935, 0.925 and 0.863, respectively.


The novel proposed spinopelvic parameter C7ST has the advantages of convenient measurement, reduced error, and extrapolation of other parameters. The greatest significance of proposing C7ST is that pelvic parameters (PI, PT and SS) are converted into spinal parameters (C7ST and GT), which is very helpful for a more intuitive understanding of the progression of spinal sagittal imbalance.

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