N. Lemeunier, S. da Silva-Oolup, K. Olesen, H. Shearer, L. J. Carroll, O. Brady, E. Côté, P. Stern, T. Tuff, M. Suri-Chilana, P. Torres, J. J. Wong, D. Sutton, K. Murnaghan, P. Côté

May 2019, Volume 28, Issue 5, pp 1156 - 1179 Review Article Read Full Article 10.1007/s00586-019-05949-8

First Online: 16 March 2019


To determine the reliability and validity of self-reported questionnaires to measure pain and disability in adults with grades I–IV neck pain and its associated disorders (NAD).


We updated the systematic review of the 2000–2010 Bone and Joint Decade Task Force on Neck Pain and its Associated Disorders and systematically searched databases from 2005 to 2017. Independent reviewers screened and critically appraised studies using standardized tools. Evidence from low-risk-of-bias studies was synthesized according to best evidence synthesis principles. Validity studies were ranked according to the Sackett and Haynes classification.


We screened 2823 articles, and 26 were eligible for critical appraisal; 18 were low risk of bias. Preliminary evidence suggests that the Neck Disability Index (original and short versions), Whiplash Disability Questionnaire, Neck Pain Driving Index, and ProFitMap-Neck may be valid and reliable to measure disability in patients with NAD. We found preliminary evidence for the validity and reliability of pain measurements including the Body Pain Diagram, Visual Analogue Scale, the Numeric Rating Scale and the Pain-DETECT Questionnaire.


The evidence supporting the validity and reliability of instruments used to measure pain and disability is preliminary. Further validity studies are needed to confirm the clinical utility of self-reported questionnaires to assess pain and disability in patients with NAD.

Graphical abstract

These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.[Figure not available: see fulltext.]

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