Manon van den Bogaart, Barend J. van Royen, Tsjitske M. Haanstra, Marinus de Kleuver, Sayf S. A. Faraj

March 2019, Volume 28, Issue 3, pp 511 - 525 Review Article Read Full Article 10.1007/s00586-018-05870-6

First Online: 03 January 2019


To evaluate predictive factors for brace treatment outcome in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) by a systematic review of the literature.


Eligible studies evaluating one or more predictive factors for brace treatment outcome were included following a systematic search in PubMed and EMBASE on October 23, 2017. Inclusion criteria were: (1) subjects diagnosed with AIS, (2) age ≤ 18 years, (3) treated with a thoraco-lumbo-sacral orthosis (TLSO), and (4) evaluated one or more predictive factors of treatment outcome (failure and/or success). The methodological quality of included studies was independently assessed by two authors. Pooling was not possible due to heterogeneity in statistical analysis. Predictive factors were presented according to a best-evidence synthesis.


The literature search identified 26 studies that met the inclusion criteria, and multiple types of TLSO braces were identified (Boston, Wilmington, Chêneau, Osaka Medical College, Dresdner Scoliosis Orthosis and SPoRT). A total of 19 radiographic and 8 clinical predictive factors were reported. Strong evidence was found that lack of initial in-brace correction is associated with treatment failure. Moderate evidence suggests that brace wear time is associated with failure and success, whereas initial curve magnitude and curve type are not.


The results of this review suggest that lack of initial in-brace correction is strongly associated with brace treatment failure. Future studies on the threshold for minimal immediate in-brace correction, as a potential indication for brace treatment, are recommended.

Graphical abstract

These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.[Figure not available: see fulltext.]

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