Sven Hoppe, Tarek Elfiky, Marius Johann Baptist Keel, Emin Aghayev, Timo Michael Ecker, Lorin Michael Benneker

October 2016, Volume 25, Issue 11, pp 3463 - 3469 Original Article Read Full Article 10.1007/s00586-015-4191-8

First Online: 15 August 2015


This study aimed at assessing the cement leakage rate and the filling pattern in patients treated with vertebroplasty, kyphoplasty and stentoplasty with and without a newly developed lavage technique.

Study design

Retrospective clinical case–control study.


A newly developed bipedicular lavage technique prior to cement application was applied in 64 patients (45.1 %) with 116 vertebrae, (“lavage” group). A conventional bipedicular cement injection technique was used in 78 patients (54.9 %) with 99 levels (“controls”). The outcome measures were filling patterns and leakage rates.


The overall leakage rate (venous, cortical defect, intradiscal) was 37.9 % in the lavage and 83.8 % in the control group (p < 0.001). Venous leakage (lavage 12.9 % vs. controls 31.3 %; p = 0.001) and cortical defect leakage (lavage 17.2 % vs. controls 63.3 %; p < 0.001) were significantly lower in the lavage group compared to “controls,” whereas intradiscal leakages were similar in both groups (lavage 12.1 % vs. controls 15.2 %; p = 0.51). For venous leakage multivariate logistic regression analysis showed lavage to be the only independent predictor. Lavage was associated with 0.33-times (95 % CI 0.16–0.65; p = 0.001) lower likelihood for leakage in compared to controls.


Vertebral body lavage prior to cement augmentation is a safe technique to reduce cement leakage in a clinical setting and has the potential to prevent pulmonary fat embolism. Moreover, a better filling pattern can be achieved.

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