Jin Luo, Phillip Pollintine, Edward Gomm, Patricia Dolan, Michael A. Adams


September 2012, Volume 21, Issue 9, pp 1684 - 1691 Original Article Read Full Article 10.1007/s00586-012-2279-y

First Online: 25 March 2012

Introduction

Vertebral deformities often occur in patients who recall no trauma, and display no evident fracture on radiographs. We hypothesise that vertebral deformity can occur by a gradual creep mechanism which is accelerated following minor damage. “Creep” is continuous deformation under constant load.

Materials and methods

Forty-five thoracolumbar spine motion segments were tested from cadavers aged 42–92 years. Vertebral body areal BMD was measured using DXA. Specimens were compressed at 1 kN for 30 min, while creep in each vertebral body was measured using an optical MacReflex system. After 30 min recovery, each specimen was subjected to a controlled overload event which caused minor damage to one of its vertebrae. The creep test was then repeated.

Results

Vertebral body creep was measurable in specimens with BMD <0.5 g/cm2. Creep was greater anteriorly than posteriorly (p < 0.001), so that vertebrae gradually developed a wedge deformity. Compressive overload reduced specimen height by 2.24 mm (STD 0.77 mm), and increased vertebral body creep by 800 % (anteriorly), 1,000 % (centrally) and 600 % (posteriorly). In 34 vertebrae with complete before-and-after data, anterior wedging occurring during the 1st creep test averaged 0.07° (STD 0.17°), and in the 2nd test (after minor damage) it averaged 0.79° (STD 1.03°). The increase was highly significant (P < 0.001). Vertebral body wedging during the 2nd creep test was proportional to the severity of damage, as quantified by specimen height loss during the overload event (r 2 = 0.51, p < 0.001, n = 34).

Conclusions

Minor damage to an old vertebral body, even if it is barely discernible on radiographs, can accelerate creep to such an extent that it makes a substantial contribution to vertebral deformity.


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