Christopher K. Kepler, Eric A. Bogner, Richard J. Herzog, Russel C. Huang


March 2011, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 550 - 556 Original Article Read Full Article 10.1007/s00586-010-1593-5

First Online: 13 October 2010

Lateral transpsoas interbody fusion (LTIF) is a minimally invasive technique that permits interbody fusion utilizing cages placed via a direct lateral retroperitoneal approach. We sought to describe the locations of relevant neurovascular structures based on MRI with respect to this novel surgical approach. We retrospectively reviewed consecutive lumbosacral spine MRI scans in 43 skeletally mature adults. MRI scans were independently reviewed by two readers to identify the location of the psoas muscle, lumbar plexus, femoral nerve, inferior vena cava and right iliac vein. Structures potentially at risk for injury were identified by: a distance from the anterior aspect of the adjacent vertebral bodies of


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