Factors predicting outcome after whiplash injury in subjects pursuing litigation
B. J. A. Lankester, N. Garneti, M. F. Gargan, G. C. Bannister
December 2005, Volume 15, Issue 6, pp 902 - 907 Original Article Read Full Article 10.1007/s00586-005-0936-0
First Online: 29 December 2005
Records of 277 patients presenting for medicolegal reporting following isolated whiplash injury were studied retrospectively. A range of pre-accident, accident and response variables were recorded. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the main factors that predict physical and psychological outcome after whiplash injury. The factors that showed significant association with poor outcome on both physical and psychological outcome scales were pre-injury back pain, high frequency of General Practitioner attendance, evidence of pre-injury depression or anxiety symptoms, front position in the vehicle and pain radiating away from the neck after injury. The strongest associations were with factors that are present before impact. In this selected cohort of patients, there is a physical and a psychological vulnerability that may explain the widely varied response to low violence indirect neck injury.
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